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Thursday, April 30, 2009

MEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING

· *Medical imaging refers to the “techniques and processes used to create images of the human body for clinical purposes

· *It also refers to study about human anatomy and other cytological changes in human.

· *As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates

· *Radiology* *Radiology* *Endoscopy* *Thermography* *medical photography* and *microscopy*.

· e.g. for human pathological investigations- urine culture, blood test

· *Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images, such as electroencephalography(EEG) and magnetoencephalography(MEG) and others, but which produce data susceptible to be represented as maps(i.e. containing positional information), can be seen as forms of medical imaging.

· *In the clinical context, medical imaging is generally equated to Radiology or "clinical imaging"

· *The medical practitioner responsible for interpreting images is called a radiologist.

· *Diagnostic radiography designates the technical aspects of medical imaging and in particular the acquisition of medical images.

· *The radiographer or radiologic technologist is usually responsible for acquiring medical images of diagnostic quality.

As a field of scientific investigation, medical imaging constitutes a sub-discipline of:

1. Biomedical engineering,

2. Medical physics,

3. Medicine,

4. Physics,

5. Computer science,

6. Radiology,

7. Neuroscience,

8. Cardiology,

9. Psychiatry,

10. Psycology.

Depending on the context:

· Research and development in the area of instrumentation,

· Image acquisition (e.g.radiography),

· Modelling and

· Quantification.

· *Medical imaging is often perceived to designate the set of techniques that non-invasively produce images of the internal aspect of the body.

· *In this restricted sense, medical imaging can be seen as the solution of the mathematical inverse problems.

· *This means that cause (the properties of living tissue) is inferred from effect of the observed signal.

· *In the case of ultrasonography the probe consists of ultrasonic pressure waves and echoes inside the tissue show the internal structure.

· *In the case of projection radiography, the probe is X-ray radiations which is absorbed at different rates in different tissue types such as bone, muscle and fat.

· Thus medical image processing has lead to development of industrial and other upcoming and existing fields of science and technology.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

DBMS BASICS

Database :

· A database is an organized collection of data that is useful to us.

· The data inside in a database can be modified, deleted or new data can be added.

· Database is nothing but a collection of inter-related tables.

· It is also called as STORAGE MANAGER

TABLE: A table consists of rows and columns.

ROWS: Rows are the records stored

COLUMNS: Attributes or fields.

Data Type: A data type is a set of data with values having predefined characteristics. Each language has its own data types. Usually, a limited number of such data types come built into a language

SQL domain Types

SQL supports the following domain types.

1) Char(n) 2) varchar(n) 3) int 4) numeric(p,d)

5) float(n) 6) date

Aggregate functions are functions that take a collection of values as input and return a single value.

Aggregate functions supported by SQL are

· Average: avg

· Minimum: min

· Maximum: max

· Total: sum

· Count: count

GROUP BY. was added to SQL because aggregate functions (like SUM) return the aggregate of all column values every time they are called, and without the GROUP BY function it was impossible to find the sum for each individual group of column values

CURSORS:

A cursor is a private SQL area used to execute SQL statements and store processing information. PL/SQL implicitly uses cursors for all DML commands and SELECT command that returns only one row. And it also allows you to define explicit cursor to deal with multiple row queries

TYPES OF CURSORS:

1. IMPLICIT CURSORS.

2. EXPLICIT CURSORS.

TRIGGERS:

Triggers are statements that are executed automatically by the system as the side effect of a modification to the database

categories of SQL commanD:

SQL commands are divided in to the following categories:

1. Data - definitition language.

2. Data manipulation language

3. Data Query language

4. Data control language

5. Data administration statements

6. Transaction control statements

Three classes of SQL expression

SQL expression consists of three clauses:

· Select

· From

· where

parts of SQL language:

The SQL language has several parts:

· Data - definitition language

· Data manipulation language

· View definition

· Transaction control

· Embedded SQL

· Integrity

· Authorization

query language

A query is a statement requesting the retrieval of information. The portion of

DML that involves information retrieval is called a query language

applications of DBMS:

a) Banking

b) Airlines

c) Universities

d) Credit card transactions

e) Tele communication

f) Finance

g) Sales

h) Manufacturing

i) Human resources

Disadvantages of file processing system

The disadvantages of file processing systems are

a) Data redundancy and inconsistency

b) Difficulty in accessing data

c) Data isolation

d) Integrity problems

e) Atomicity problems

f) Concurrent access anomalies

advantages of using a DBMS

The advantages of using a DBMS are

a) Controlling redundancy

b) Restricting unauthorized access

c) Providing multiple user interfaces

d) Enforcing integrity constraints.

e) Providing back up and recovery

levels of data abstraction:

a) Physical level

b) logical level

c) view level

data structures implemented by the storage manager.

The storage manager implements the following data structure

a) Data files

b) Data dictionary

c) indices

data dictionary

A data dictionary is a data structure which stores meta data about the structure of

the database ie. the schema of the database

entity relationship model

The entity relationship model is a collection of basic objects called entities and relationship among those objects. An entity is a thing or object in the real world that is distinguishable from other objects.

Attributes

An entity is represented by a set of attributes. Attributes are descriptive properties possessed by each member of an entity set.

Example: possible attributes of customer entity are customer name, customer id,customer street, customer city.

TYPES OF ATTRIBUTES:

· SINGLE VALUED

· MULTI VALUED

· STORED

· DERIVED

· COMPOSITE

· NULL

privileges in SQL

· Delete

· Select

· Insert

· Update

OBJect-oriented data model

The object-oriented paradigm is based on encapsulation of data and code related to an object in to a single unit, whose contents are not visible to the outside world.

DDL(DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE):

· Create Table ---- creates a new database table.

· Alter Table ----alters a database table.

· Drop Table : ----deletes a database table.

· Create Index ----: creates an index.

· Drop Index : ---- deletes an index.

Data Manipulation Language (DML)

1. SQL can be termed as DML i.e. Data Manipulation Language.

2. Database is manipulated so as to insert, update and delete records.

3. CREATE, ALTER or DROP a database, table, index etc.

This section also describes SELECT INTO which is used create a back up of a database table.

· Select :Retrieves desired records from a database table.

· Update : Updates/modifies records in a database table

· Delete : Deletes records from a database table.

· Insert into: Inserts new records into a database table.

Data Control Language (DCL)

1. In this section we will be using commands that control the behavior of database objects. Although DCL form a part of PL/SQL part, they have been described in brief here.

2. The commands have been described one at a time, covering all the clauses.

The commands have been described with appropriate example one at a time covering all the clauses before we go on to discuss Data Control Language (DCL) commands

PROJECT MANAGEMENT


ONE MUST KNOW HOW TO MAINTAIN A PROJECT

THIS CYCLE TELLS YOU ABOUT THE VARIOUS PHASES IN A PROJECT.






PROJECT TIPS


HOW TO WRITE A PROJECT REPORT?

It is essential that you write a good project report to get a good grade. Even if you have done significant work, but have not been able to write well, then it will reflect poorly. It is important to demonstrate your ability to write clearly about the subject.

A GENERIC STRUCTURE OF PROJECT REPORT:

While the structure of the report may be different for different UG / PG programs / courses , typically the report should contain the following:

1. TITLE:

Convey area and scope of project.

Should not be too short or too long.

2. ABSTRACT:

Provides summary of the report.

Problem addressed.

Methodology used.

Findings.

Conclusions obtained.

Many researchers will read only the abstract of the report , and not the other

Chapters and hence it should be a self-contained one.

3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

Name of people who helped .

Dedications to any.

Any thanking to any firm or institutions.

4. TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Should list all materials following it, as well as any materials which precede it.

5. LIST OF TABLES:

Should have exactly the same captions as they appear above the tables in the text.

6. LIST OF FIGURES:

Should contain exactly the same captions, as they appear below the figures in the text.

7. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS:

It should be the standard ones.

CHAPTER I :

INTRODUCTION:

· Highlight topic and importance.

· Underlying concepts.

· General principles

· Specifics.

INRODUCTION SHOULD LEAD THE READERS GENTLY FROM THE KNOWN TO UNKNOWN.”

CHAPTER II:

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

· Information of work done on topic by previous researchers.

· Most of the examiners normally scan the references looking for important works in the field.

CHAPTER III:

METHODS AND MATERIALS / METHADOLOGIES:

· Description of experiments

· Data collection procedure.

· Statistical methods adopted.

IT SHOULD BE MORE OR LESS LIKE AN INSTRUCTION MANUAL TO HE READER.”

CHAPTER IV:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:

· Conditions chosen.

· Statistical analysis.

· Tabulated forms.

· Graphs.

· Pie charts.

· Histograms.

CHAPTER V:

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS:

THE MAIN OUTCOME OF THE REPORT IS BROUGHT INTO SHARP FOCUS IN THIS CHAPTER.”

THE FINDINGS SHOULD BE

· Short

· Concise.

· Clear.

· Easy for the reader to extract.

· Practical implementations.

· Recommendations of future research.

APPENDICES:

Supplementary information, there by not to cluster the main chapters.

The main things to be furnished in this appendices column are as below,

Eg:

· Experimental observations.

· Sample calculations.

· Computer programs.

· Questionnaire.

· Maps

· Specification of instruments.

References and bibliography:

References are works directly referred to or quoted from in the text of the report.

Bibliography is the list of works consulted or used for the project works.

IMPORTANT NOTES:

· Normally project report will contain the references and not the bibliography.

· References need to be cited in 2 different places, viz., (i) In the text of project report. (ii) At the end of the report in the chapter on “REFERENCES”.

TIPS:

CITATION IN THE TEXT:

All works (statements,conclusion,quotes,opinions etc.,) taken from other author’s work should be mentioned whether if the work is directly quoted or even if summarised.

FONT AND LAYOUT:

· TIMES NEW ROMAN.

· TIMES ROMAN.

· BOOKMAN OLD STYLE.

· PALATINO.

FONT SIZE:

* 12 FOR MAIN TEXT

* TITLES CAN BE MADE LITTLE LARGER.

LINE SPACING:

ONE AND HALF (1.5)

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY:

SINGLE SPACED.

END TIPS:

All pages must be numbered consecutively as follows:

· LOWERCASE ROMAN NUMERALS (i,ii,iii….) for preliminary pages.

· ARABIC NUMERALS(1,2,3….) for body of project report.

· All tables,figures and equations should be numbered serially.

· Size of the project report: 60 to 80 pages.